Investoren haben Vorurteile gegen Frauen

Fondsmanagerinnen erzielen für ihre Kunden genauso hohe Renditen wie ihre männlichen Kollegen. Trotzdem investieren Anleger viel seltener in ihre Fonds. Den Grund dafür haben zwei Wirtschaftswissenschaftler der Universität Mannheim herausgefunden.

Frauen in Führungspositionen verdienen fast durch die Bank weg weniger als ihre männlichen Kollegen. Wenn sie es überhaupt in die Chefetage schaffen.

Wollen Frauen vielleicht nicht die große Karriere? Sind sie vielleicht schlechter qualifiziert? Oder wird ihnen in männerdominierten Berufen einfach keine Führungsqualität zugetraut? Das Wissenschaftler-Ehepaar Professor Dr. Alexandra Niessen-Ruenzi und Professor Dr. Stefan Ruenzi von der Mannheimer Fakultät für Betriebswirtschaftslehre konnte nun in einer Studie zur amerikanischen Finanzbranche zeigen: Vorurteile gegen Frauen spielen eine entscheidende Rolle.

Die beiden Wirtschaftswissenschaftler der Uni Mannheim haben dazu in den vergangenen sieben Jahren die Daten der gesamten US-amerikanischen Fondsindustrie ausgewertet. „Wir haben bei der Auswertung festgestellt, dass in Fonds, die von Frauen verwaltet werden, rund 15 Prozent weniger investiert wird als in die von männlichen Fondsmanagern“, erklärt Alexandra Niessen-Ruenzi. „Und das obwohl die Renditen, die sie für die Anleger erzielen, im Mittel gleich sind.“ Das erkläre auch, warum Frauen in der Finanzmarktbranche eher eine Seltenheit sind. Denn Frauen einzustellen erweist sich somit auch als weniger attraktiv für die Fondsgesellschaften.

Die Forscher haben daraufhin sämtliche Faktoren untersucht, die außer dem Geschlecht die niedrigen Zuflüsse in weiblich verwaltete Fonds erklären könnten. „Es könnte zum Beispiel sein, dass für die Fonds der Frauen weniger Werbung gemacht wird, sie vom Kunden höhere Gebühren verlangen oder dass Frauen schlicht den Wettbewerb scheuen, der in der Finanzmarktbranche herrscht“, erklärt Alexandra Niessen-Ruenzi. „Aber selbst nachdem wir für einige dieser empirischen Größen kontrolliert haben, waren die Geldzuflüsse in Fonds von Frauen immer noch deutlich niedriger.“

Um weitere Hinweise dafür zu sammeln, dass Vorurteile von Anlegern ein Grund für die niedrigen Zuflüsse der „weiblichen“ Fonds sind, führten die Wissenschaftler ein Experiment durch. Das Ergebnis: Wie in den Daten legten auch die Testpersonen im Experiment 15 Prozent weniger in Fonds von Frauen an. Mithilfe eines psychologischen Tests wurden die Personen dann noch auf ihre Vorurteile gegenüber Frauen in der Finanzmarktbranche getestet. Dabei kam heraus, dass viele Teilnehmer Vorurteile haben und dass die Personen mit den stärksten Vorurteilen auch am wenigsten in die „weiblichen“ Fonds investierten.

Die Studie der beiden Wissenschaftler der Uni Mannheim ist die erste Studie, die zeigt, dass Vorurteile gegenüber Frauen einen großen Einfluss auf Investitionsentscheidungen haben können. Bei der diesjährigen „Rothschild Cesarea Conference” Ende Mai in Israel haben sie dafür den „Best Paper Award“ von der Jury erhalten. Die Konferenz war mit Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftlern unter anderem aus Harvard und Stanford hochrangig besetzt.

(Universität Mannheim)


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